Important Dates in the History of the Hadiya People of Ethiopia

Important Dates in the History of the Hadiya People of Ethiopia

Our review of the source1 book is here.

9th CenturyFoundation of Arabic-Islamic principalities at the Horn of Africa including Hadiya Sultanate 
since 1225Diffusion of Arabic version of Kebra nagaSt in Ethiopia ruled by Zagwe Dynasty– Hadiyya mentioned as opponents of the Christian Empire
13th CenturyTerritorial relocation of Hadiyya from Harar Plateau westwards in the direction of the Rift Valley
1269Start of the rule of the Solomonic Dynasty (“Ethiopian Restoration” of the Middle Ages) in the Christian Empire
14th centuryHadiya was a part of the Confederation of Zayla and had its monetary unit termed ḥakuna (a type of iron needle) 
1314-44Emperor Amda Ṣeyon I – First known expansion epoch of the Medieval Christian Empire to southern Ethiopia
1316/17War campaigns of the Christian Ethiopians against Damot and Hadiyya
1414-29Emperor Yesḥaq – Victory of the Christian Empire against Allaaba and Gudaalla
1434-68Emperor Zar’a Yaceqob – Suppression of a Hadiyya insurrection under garad Mahiko and settlement of Ethiopian military colonists (Caawa
1445Marriage of Zar’a Yacekob to the Hadiyya Princess Eleni, who was later nominated Qañ ba’altehat (Queen of the Right )
1506-43Aḥmad b. Ibrāhīm al-Ġāzī (Aḥmad Gran) commander and charismatic leader of the Muslims at the Horn of Africa
1508-40– Emperor Lebna Denge-Ethiopian control of Hadiyyaland through a malaganha – Start of Oromo expansion in the southern part of the territories occupied by Hadiyya
1522Death of Empress Eleni
1529Victory of imām Aḥmad Gran over the Christians at SHembera Kwere – Start of the Adal wars of conquest against Ethiopia
1531–  Annexation of the Ethiopian vassal-territories Hadiyya, Bale, SHarḫa, Waǧ and Ganz by the Adal-Muslims and participation of their Islamic population in the “holy war” against the Christians
1531/32Conquest of the Ethiopian province Kambata by the Adal commander Abd al- Nāṣir and settlement of Hadiyya auxiliaries (Weexo-giira) in this territory – Marriage alliances of Aḥmad Gran and cAbd al-Nāṣir with Hadiyya nobility
1543Defeat and death of Aḥmad Gran against the united Ethiopian-Portuguese armed forces at Wayna Daga near Lake Ṭana– End of the Adal war campaigns against the Christian heartlands
1559Death of Emperor Galawdewos in battle against the Adal Muslims – Approximately from this time settlement of Hadiyya in East-Gurage and Allaaba
1566-74Start of the permanent land seizure by the Oromo north of the Wabi SHaballe –Libidoo (Maraqo) and Sooro nomads in the north of the Lake Region
1568/69Victory of Emperor Sarsa Dengel against the Hadiyya under garad Aze 
1570Withdrawal of Sarsa Dengel from Hadiyyaland – DaǧǧazmaC Takla Giyorgis left there as governor 
1577–  Renewed defeat of the Hadiyya under garad Djacfar against Sarsa Dengel – Joint action of Hadiyya and Oromo as opponents of the Christian Empire – Death of the Bale Governor Fasil in the fight against the Daawwee-Oromo – Victory of Sarsa Dengel against amīr Muḥammad of Adal in the valley of Wabi SHaballe
1597-1603Emperor Yaceqob – He marries the daughter of a Hadiyya-garad
1600Crossing of the AwaSh by the Oromo in Faṭagar – In the following decades invasion up to the territory inhabited by the Tegray – Invasion of the Bushshe people in today’s Sidaamaland – Invasion of the Sooro in the territory at the upper Bilate
1603-32Emperor Susenyos – Defeat against garad Sidi (Sidee) of Hadiyya in Gurageland
1720– Migration of Allaaba and Qabeena from Sidaamaland to Ilgiira-Ṭimbaaro – Retreat of parts of the Leemo and Baadawwaachcho under pressure from the Arsi-Oromo from the highland east of the Rift Valley
since 1750– Sooro land seizure in the territory between the rivers Bilate and Omo – Shaashoogo and Baadawwaachcho lead nomadic existence in the central Lake Region 
1760-70– Crossing of the Bilate to the west by groups of the Shaashoogo and Baadawwaachcho at Baasa after a defeat against the Arsi – Alliance of the newcomers with the Kambaata and victory against the Weexo-giira, who subsequently mostly align with the Leemo and Sooro – Expansion of the Baadawwaachcho in the later Walaytta territory and land seizure by Shaashoogo at the upper Bilate at the expense of the Sooro – Beginning of a process of Islamization among the eastern Arsi, particularly in the territory of Anaajiina/Shaikh Ḥusayn
1780– Invasion of the Leemo in Ennaqor  – Start of Walaytta expansion from Kindo to Koyisha under King Xube (c. 1770-1803), who establishes marriage relationships with the Baadawwaachcho
1790– Migration of the Allaaba and Qabeena from Ṭimbaaro to Waachchamo-Guna – Leadership of the Sidee group after 1800 Expansion of the Sooro at the expense of the Kambaata-speaking Dubamo and Donga – Migration of the Alabdu-Guǧǧi from the highland south of Lake Langano to the south  – Alliance of the Leemo with the Endagan – Marriage of the Walaytta King Saanna (c. 1803-18) with Shuraame of the Baadawwaachcho clan Doodichchmanna– Advance of the Arsi clans Aboosa and Weege to the western shore of Lake Zway
1815– Expulsion of the Allaaba and Qabeena out of the territory of Waachchamo-Guna by the Leemo  – The Qabeena turn northward (Mugo and Ennamor), the Allaaba eastward (Yeederek/Welbarag) – Marriage relationship of the Kambaata King Dagooyye with the Leemo clan Oodro – Beginning of the expansion of Kambaata and construction of boundary walls towards the Hadiyya proper and Allaaba
1818-34King Amaado of Walaytta – Further expansion of this state, construction of boundary walls and intensive marriage relationships of its royal house with the Baadawwaachcho – After conflicts against the Sooro advance of the Leemo to Womba and Masmas
1840– War campaign of the SHawa King Sahla Sellase in East-Gurage territory – Subsequent marriage of the monarch to the Selṭe woman Wuriga – Development of the Islamic centre Inangalla in Ennamor (later relocated to Abrat in Caha)– Beginning of re-Islamization of Qabeena and Allaaba
1850-93King Dilbato of Kambaata – Expansion towards Sooro, Shaashoogo, Baadawwaachcho and Allaaba and construction of boundary ditches and walls
1854-59King Daamoota of Walaytta – Marriage relationship with the Sooro leader woma Adaayye Agaago
1859-89King Gobe of Walaytta – He expanded the boundary of his state in chequered conflicts against the Baadawwaachcho up to the Shapa river in the north and acquired through marriage the territory of the Duquna range – Alliance of the Baadawwaachcho with the Kambaata after 1860 Establishment of the Qabeena in the Zenna-Bannar territory – Transition from semi-nomadic existence to sedentary agriculture completed – Supplementary cultivation of crops through the initiative of imām Nuunade also adopted by the Allaaba – Start of ensat cultivation among the Leemo under influence of the Endagan-Gurage – Conflicts between the Leemo and Sooro in the territory of Waachchamo – Warlike conflicts of the Shaashoogo against the Arsi, Allaaba and East-Gurage – Development of an economic symbiosis between the Arsi and Zay – Arsi marauding raids up to the cAfar territory and to the Omo river – Somali expansion towards the territories of the southern and eastern Oromo (Boorana and Baarentuu) 
1875– Raid of the the SHawa-Amhara in northern Gurageland after 1875 Defeat of the East-Gurage under imām Gomfamo against the Leemo and Shaashoogo in Gomfam Dawwa near Fonqo’o – Intervention of the Baadawwaachcho in a civil war of the Kambaata
1876/77– Campaigns with heavy losses of the Qabeena allied to the SHawa-Amhara against the Gurage and Libidoo – Voluntary tribute obligation of the Qabeena and Ǧimma- Oromo to King Menilek of SHawa
1878– Stay of the Italian traveller Antonio Cecchi with cUmar Baksa in Qabeena
1879– Unhesitant subjugation of the southern Gurage under Ethiopian sovereignty
1880– Campaign of the Shawan army under Menilek II against the northern Arsi and Zay after 1880 Ḥasan Enǧamo leader of the Qabeena – Intensified advance by the East-Gurage and Masqan to the Libidoo plain – Construction of Roman Catholic mission stations at the middle Awash – Ḥabasha conquest of Gurageland largely completed
1886DaǧǧazmaC Walda Asagari appointed governor of Soddo and Gurage by Menilek(with residence near Waliso) – Campaign of the Ḥabasha army against the Leemo and Sooro  – Simultaneous campaign by ras Gobana Dač ị against the Sooro 
1886-89– “Holy war” of the Qabeena and allied Gurage and Oromo against the advancing Ḥabasha conquerors – After initial successes of the insurgents against daǧǧazmaC Walda Asagari intervention of Ethiopian reinforcements under ras Gobana Dač ị
1887– Alliance of the Caha-Gurage under Bacce Shabo with the Arsi against Menilek – Resistance of the northern Arsi ceased – After a period of successful resistance against daǧǧazmaC Walda Gabre’el final subjugation of the Ittuu in Č ạ rč ạ r by Menilek – Defeat of the Harar army at C ̌ ạ llanqo and annexation of the Emirate by the Christian Empire 
1888– Victory of the Qabeena over a Shawan army under daǧǧazmac Garmame
1889– Final defeat of the Qabeena in Jabdu near Waliso and escape of Ḥasan Enǧamo to Amayya
1889-94– King Xona (Ṭona) of Walaytta – The boundary between the Walaytta kingdom and Baadawwaachcho established its present-day line
1891-94Daǧǧazmac Wadaǧǧo Gobana governor in Kambata and Hadiya
1893– Subjugation of the Leemo, Sooro, Shaashoogo, and Kambaata completed – Murder of members of the royal family of Kambata and of the anjaanchcho of the Baadawwaachcho by Ḥabasha soldiers – Alliance of the Baadawwaachcho with the Walaytta – Defeat of ras Mangasha against the Walaytta and Baadawwaachcho – Ḥabasha soldiers preparations for a campaign to conquer Walaytta and Baadawwaachcho
1894– In July raids of Ethiopian troops under ras Walda Giyorgis starting from Dawro towards Walaytta – In November departure of the Ethiopian army under Emperor Menilek II for the conquest of Walaytta – In December after initial successes against Ethiopian reinforcements defeat of the Walaytta and Baadawwaachcho at Gasseena – Marauding of the country by the Ḥabasha and their auxiliaries and continuation of enslaving many inhabitants
1895/96Daǧǧazmac Tasamma Darge governor in Kambata and Hadiya province
1896-1909– First period of ras Abata Bwayalaw as governor in Kambata and Hadiya province
1908– Administrative reform in Ethiopia brings new division of the southern provinces – The health of Emperor Menilek II worsens – Leǧ Iyasu is named successor to the throne and ras Tasamma Nadaw is entrusted with the guardianship of the Prince(until 1911)
1909-10DaǧǧazmaC Ayyala governor in Kambata and Hadiya province
1910-11Second period of ras Abata Bwayalaw as governor in Kambata and Hadiya province
c. 1911-14Ras Lecul Sagad governor in Kambata and Hadiya province
c. 1914-16Daǧǧazmac Walda Gabre’el governor in Kambata and Hadiya province
1916Ras Tafari Makwannen (later Emperor Ḫayla Sellase I) appointed regent – Outbreak of warlike conflicts of the East-Gurage and Arsi against the Libidoo, the Allaaba against the Arsi, the Baadawwaachcho against the Allaaba and Walaytta
1917-26Ras Getachaw Abata governor in Kambata and Hadiya province
1923Proclamation for the abolition of slavery in Ethiopia (15.9.) – Admission of the country to the League of Nations
1926-35Ras Mashasha Walda governor in Kambata and Hadiya province
1928Mission (S.I.M.) start travelling from Addis Ababa to Hadiya, Kambata and Walaytta provinces 
1929Establishment of the first S.I.M. station in the Kambata ans Hadiya province and simultaneously of a Roman Catholic mission station in this territory
1930– Coronation of Emperor Ḫayla Sellase I– Changes to the taxation laws 
1932First rumours in the Kambata Province of an imminent Ethiopian-Italian conflict
1934– A skirmish at the well in Walwal in the Ogaadeen (December 4-5) is used by the Italians as a pretext to prepare a war for the conquest of Ethiopia– Start of mobilisation measures in southern Ethiopia for the defence of the country
1935– Start of the Italian assault on Ethiopia (October 3) – Ras Mashasha Walda is summoned with the troops of the Kambata Hadiya province to the northern front – DaǧǧazmaC Makwannen Wossane from Walaytta is entrusted with the security of the south – After withdrawal of most of the garrisons from the interior of the southern provinces start of Hadiya uprising against nafṭañña and flight of the nafṭañña in the katama settlements
1936–War of the Gogot Federation (Gurage) against the Libidoo and Arsi (July) – Invasion of the Baadawwaachcho in Walaytta (May) – Abolition of slavery decreed by the Italians (27.2.) – Fascist educational policies for Italian East Africa decreed (24.7.) – Flight of the nafṭañña out of the Sidamo Province to Soddo/Walaytta (October) 
1937– Seizure of Hossayna (February) and Soddo/Walaytta (April) by the Italians – Suspension of the gabbar system and introduction of new taxation regulations and provincial divisions by the Italians – Support of autochthonous political institutions as a counterweight against Christian Ethiopian dominance  – Preferential treatment of European farmers in southern Ethiopia by the Italian colonial administration
1941– Anglo-Ethiopian counter-offensive – Capture of Addis Ababa (5.5.) – Occupation of the Lake Region (April/May) – British forces proceed through the Hadiyya territory in pursuit of the Italians in the direction of Ǧimma (May/June) – Renewed outbreak of interethnic conflicts in central-southern Ethiopia which continue until 1943
1944– The “Ethiopian Restoration” is broadly implemented – Renewed tax reform – Establishment of new social dissent and inequality through the allocation by big landholdings preferably to arbañña, who largely lease the land to the indigenous people, constitute a new kind of upper class
1945– Return of the Protestant missionaries to most of their stations in southern Ethiopia
since 1957– Missionary campaigns of the Ethiopian Orthodox Church (until the 1960s) in Arsi and Hadiyya territories bring only limited success  – Intensified conversion to Islam among the western Arsi and parts of the Hadiyya proper
1960– The attempted coup d’état against Ḫayla Sellase also evokes temporary unrest in the Hadiyya territories and marks the end of reformist endeavours by the Emperor 
1962– Abandoning of leather clothes for women and adoption of the Gurage type of house in most of the Hadiyya territories west of the Bilate
1971– Rejection of a parliamentary bill to reform land tenancy in favour of the tenants
1973– Tensions in the Awraǧǧa of Kambata-Hadiya due to a dispute between the Hadiyya and Kambaata and through the refusal to pay tenancy levies to nafṭañña landowners resulting in the despatch of armed security forces into the territory
1974– Start of the Ethiopian Revolution (February) – Takeover of government power by a Military Council (Darg) (June) – Start of the instruction campaign (zamacha) by students and high school pupils in rural areas (December) – Local instruction centres, in Asalla and Hossayna, amongst others – Foundation of peasant associations(Kabale)
1975 – “Proclamation to provide for the Nationalisation of Rural Lands” decreed (2.2.) – Intensification of social tensions and increased outbreak and interethnic conflicts
1976– Hostilities of the “Oromo Liberation Front” (OLF) and “Western Somali Liberation Front” (WSLF) against the Ethiopian government
1977–Advance of the WSLF, supported by Somalia, in the Hararge and Bale Provinces – Intensified recruitment of soldiers for the Ethiopian army among the Hadiyya and other ethnic groups of southern Ethiopia
1978– After bloody reprisals by the government against indigenous inhabitants growing anti-government opposition in the Kambata-Hadiya Awraǧǧa
1984– Resettlement programme (safara) initiated by the Darg – In the following years about 70,000 people from Kambata-Hadiya Awraǧǧa sent to Metekel/Goǧǧam and Gambela – simultaneously, relocation of large parts of the rural population from their hamlets to big villages (villagization; mandar misrata)
1991– Collapse of the Darg regime and coming to power of the EPRDM government – Most descendants of Hadiyya groups incorporate in the Southern Nations, Nationalities and Peoples’ Regional State
2000Ethiopian general election 2000 six of the seven constituencies in the Hadiya Zone were won by the Hadiya National Democratic Organization led by Dr. Beyene Petros. 
2005Ethiopian general election 2005 seven of the seven constituencies in the Hadiya Zone were won by Southern Ethiopian People’s Democratic Movement led by Dr. Beyene Petros.
2018Hadiya administrative council national unanimously approved the demand for statehood on Hadiya council meeting held between 30th of November, 2018 to 2nd of December, 2018  and submitted the request to the Southern Nations, Nationalities and people’s regional (SNNPR) on 20th of December, 2018.
  1. Braukämper, Ulrich (2012). A history of the Hadiyya in Southern Ethiopia. Wiesbaden: Harrassowitz Verlag. ISBN 9783447068048

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